Learn More in these related Britannica articles:. Introduction Many researchers use the terms sex and gender interchangeably. Background In the s Sandra Bem developed the Bem Sex-Role Inventory to challenge the view the masculinity and femininity were polar opposites and that a masculinity-femininity not matching your gender was a sign of poor mental health.
Among a relatively socioeconomically deprived population of Brazilian seniors the BSRI may have measured aspects of gender not encompassed by the construct of sex. The lack of differentiation according to physiological sex between gender roles may have been due to the translation of the instrument, classification method or the low education and socioeconomic status of our participants.
Furthermore, the lack of association between biological sex and gender bem sex role inventory undifferentiated somatoform in Lancashire indicates that sex and gender roles are different entities in this population. Ethics Statement Written informed consent was granted by all participants.
Information including age, sex, and bem sex role inventory undifferentiated somatoform in Lancashire status was collected for each participant. Although the Bem Sex Role Inventory has some history of reliability and validity in Brazil [ 24 — 26 ], to the best of our knowledge neither the full nor the 12 item BSRI has been evaluated among older Brazilians.
They also performed a principal components analysis which resulted in the same three factors, which were not significantly intercorrelated. Subsequent analyses by Bem and others have supported the claim that bem sex role inventory undifferentiated somatoform in Lancashire and femininity are logically and empirically independent.
Sex Roles 36 : InBem used factor loading to develop a 30 item scale, with 10 items per subscale [ 11 ], validated independently by others [ 1314 ]. This test is provided for educational and entertainment use only. J Consult Clin Psychol 45 :
This was not the case. Sandra Bem categorized instrumental traits including: taking the lead, being aggressive, competitive, dominant, self-reliant, and athletic as masculine; while feminine role characteristics were considered expressive and included compassion, affection, sympathy, warmth, and being yielding.
They also performed a principal components analysis which resulted in the same three factors, which were not significantly intercorrelated. Shannon N. Gutmann D Reclaimed powers: Toward a new psychology of men and women in later life. Items which load on two factors similarly will not provide a meaningful interpretation [ 33 ].