The final questionnaire contained sociodemographic items and questions about HIV and AIDS knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors for more details, see [ 30 ]. Given the compromises between modes, another option is a mixed-mode survey, which is administered using two or more data collection modes to allow participants an element of convenience and choice and to also compensate for the limitations of a single mode [ 128 - 10 ].
Our results, although limited by the observational study design, may be important to consider in light of the increasing use of mixed-mode surveys that combine telephone and Web completion modes to reduce costs and increase validity and may help inform future experimental survey methods studies and population-based research in the area of HIV and AIDS.
Ann Epidemiol. Black women were less likely than white women to be reached for study participation. Lazarus RS. Daily hassles are ubiquitous; most people perceive hassles as an unavoidable part of life and are expected to recover relatively quickly from such experiences. Landis [ 25 ] reported that female respondents expressed more feminist responses to a male interviewer than to a female interviewer.
Caldwell, K. Before the advent of such software in the s, many researchers used analysis of variance to measure interviewer effects. Recruitment of older African Americans for survey research: a process evaluation of the community and church-based strategy in the Durham Elders Project. Gender effects among telephone interviewers in a survey of economic attitudes.
Journal of Social and Personal Relationships. Fendrich et al. The prevalence, distribution, and mental health correlates of perceived discrimination in the United States.
Were any of these casual partners? Can Respir J. Web respondents also reported more charitable giving in the past year Second, to minimize the effect of mode selection bias on confounding our results, we use propensity score methodology, which was developed to approximate the analysis of observational nonrandomized data to that of randomized treatment assignment [ 33 ].
Table 3 Examples of participant comments on accommodating sociocultural differences.