This kind of technique will provide important information regarding the physiological cascade of events that takes place within the central nervous system over the course of development. Development of cystic fibrosis and noncystic fibrosis airway cell lines.
Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 31 : — BMC Evol Biol. Download references. Thus, whereas females can be either homozygous or heterozygous with respect to X chromosome-linked traits, males due to the presence of only one X chromosome are hemizygous.
In mosses or liverworts, separate sexes are only found in the haploid phase of the life cycle of an individual UV sex chromosomes. Even though the outcome of sex determination—whether an individual produces relatively few large ova or many small sperm—is strongly conserved, a bewildering number of underlying mechanisms can trigger development as either a male or female .
Sex-biased inheritance patterns of different genetic elements—such as sex chromosomes, organelles, or endosymbionts—create a conflict over which sex is preferred, and can drive the evolution of male- or female-biased sex ratios. Dioecy plants or gonochorism animals : individuals are either male or female throughout their life.
Retrieved 7 June Turnover of sex chromosomes can also be triggered by the degeneration of the Y and W chromosome, which commonly follows the cessation of recombination and will result in the replacement of a low-fitness Y or W chromosome with a nondegenerate one .
Int J Dev Mechanism of sex determination in non-human organisms in Green Bay 75—
The premenstrual period and exacerbations in multiple sclerosis. Ono S, Mustari MJ Dev Psychobiol 34 : 1—3. Importantly, new gene-silencing technologies developed in rodents offer an intriguing opportunity in the future to examine localized inactivation over more protracted intervals with exquisite control over timing and targeting of the inactivation Cryan et al, ; Kappel et al, ; Kumar et al, ; Salahpour et al, Fisheries Research.
First, adversely reared monkeys generally appear to respond abnormally to emotionally provocative stimuli.
It is also clear that many non-genomic factors interact with genotype in the progress of psychopathology Tsankova et al, These latter species offer some distinct practical advantages in terms of husbandry and handling.
A human cell line from a pleural effusion derived from a breast carcinoma. Thus clearly, not only does the sex of the stem cell matter, but also the sex of the host into which the cells are placed. Social stress in pregnant squirrel monkeys Saimiri boliviensis peruviensis differentially affects placental transfer of maternal antibody to male and female infants.
However, relative to both rodent-based models and direct human studies, psychiatric research using primates remains comparatively underrepresented in the literature.