The kappa opioid nalbuphine produces gender- and dose-dependent analgesia and antianalgesia in patients with postoperative pain. Prediction of ovulation using urine-based home ovulation testing kits to assess leuteinizing hormone surge is a minimum standard in studies in which the menstrual cycle is of interest.
Elsevier; Recent advances in depression across the generations. The effect of experimenter gender on autonomic and subjective responses to pain stimuli.
Kenakin T. However, variations in these physiological data have not yet been established as true pain severity indicators in animals . Berkleyf Roger B. The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of the steroidal hormone estrogen in modulating sex-related differences in pain perception within a scenario of perioperative orthopedics surgery, using the dog as an animal model.
The resulting consensus presented herein includes input from basic science, clinical and psychosocial pain researchers, as well as from recognized experts in sexual differentiation and reproductive endocrinology.
The entire right breast was hypersensitive to touch with maximal tenderness just superior to the right nipple. Please add updates practicalpainmanagement. Sex, gender, and pain: a review of recent clinical and experimental findings.
PL was treated with intravenous morphine 4 mg each that did not improve her pain. J Pain. Personality factors in the explanation of sex differences in pain catastrophizing and response to experimental pain.
World Health Organization. The frequency of pain and sedative medication administered to these patients from 12 hours postop to 72 hours postop was compared. Medical Care, 19, — Drug abuse as an index of stress in women.
That is, both sexes rather than just males should be tested with androgens, and both sexes rather than just females should be tested with estrogens.